Sunday, June 30, 2013

Channel NewsAsia : Cambodian jungle graveyard mystifies experts

Cambodian jungle graveyard mystifies experts





Over a hundred 'burial jars' and a dozen coffins arranged on a ledge in remote Cambodian jungle have for centuries held the bones -- and secrets -- of a mysterious people who lived alongside with the Angkor era.


PHNOM PENH, Cambodia: Over a hundred 'burial jars' and a dozen coffins arranged on a ledge in remote Cambodian jungle have for centuries held the bones -- and secrets -- of a mysterious people who lived alongside with the Angkor era.
Why the bones were placed in jars on a cliff some 100 metres (320 feet) high in the Cardamom Mountains, or indeed whose remains they are, has long puzzled experts.
For seven years, Nancy Beavan, an archaeologist who specialises in carbon dating, has been looking for an answer by painstakingly piecing together clues left by the enigmatic people at 10 sites dotted across the area in southwestern Cambodia.
Tests show some of the bone fragments are six centuries old, according to the New Zealander.
"Why put these bones in jars? This was a practice that was not observed in any other part of Cambodia," she said.
Ten jars, dating from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and twelve coffins -- the earliest from the 14th century -- have been found at the Phnom Pel site.
Some are believed to have come from the kingdom of Siam, now Thailand. Others, a minority, date back to the powerful kingdom of Angkor, which ruled for six centuries and built the famous Angkor Wat temple complex further to the north.
But experts remain mystified as to why the bones were preserved in a Buddhist country where cremation is -- and was -- a key religious custom.
Tep Sokha, an expert in Cambodian ceramics, said the jars are of the "highest ceramic quality" and the number indicates that "this was a sacred and widely practiced ritual."
If villagers living near the cliff were aware of the jars, they have stayed away, allowing foreigners to study the relics at their leisure. And the whole study has been left to Beavan's team.
They are picking through the evidence, often left to guess the origins of the artefacts they find including 12 coffins lined up on a rock that are so small they could not even hold a child's body but which contain the bones of men and women.
"These coffins are unique. There is no other example in the history of Cambodia. They are relics that have never been disturbed," Beavan adds.
Among her theories is that the bones belonged to Khmer tribesmen who lived deep in the mountains far from the influence of the Angkor kingdom, which spanned Southeast Asia from the ninth to 15th centuries, but perhaps failed to reach this corner.
"They have nothing to do with the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Angkor but lived in his shadow," she said. "Who knows, maybe they were also slaves fleeing the Angkor kingdom."
The search for answers took a leap forward in 2005 when fisherman off Koh Kong province found the same Siamese jars in their nets, prompting the discovery of a 15th century wreck containing ivory, Chinese porcelain and Siamese and Angkorian jars.
The discovery provided the first scientific evidence of how Siamese jars could have been brought to the Cardamoms. Beavan believes the ship came from the Siamese empire to trade jars for ivory and precious wood.
Despite the importance of the find, conservation remains a problem.
In Koh Kong, hundreds of objects salvaged from the wreck have been left in a back room of the Provincial Court since 2007, despite Cambodia being one of the few Asian countries to have signed up the UN Convention on the preservation of underwater cultural heritage.
But the discovery has led local authorities to consider establishing a museum for the artifacts which would preserve a long-neglected part of the nation's heritage.
They hope it could become a valuable tourist attraction and spur proposals to protect the region.
In 2012, the province recorded 100,000 local and foreign tourists, drawn to the beauty of the Cardamom Mountains, home to stunning waterfalls and one of the region's most biodiverse forests.
For all its natural bounty, the Cardamom region has seen some species gradually disappear as its precious wood forests fall prey to loggers and hunters plundering its rare species.
For two years, UNESCO has been building a case to list the mountain range as a key "biosphere reserve". The ship wreck, the sacred jars and the coffins add a cultural dimension that could boost the case for listing the area.
"To do nothing would be a crime," according to Anne Lemaistre, the director of UNESCO in Cambodia.
Time may be running out with many industrial projects, some Chinese-linked, tearing through the heart of the forest and compounding the damage to the ecosystem caused by hunters and loggers.
"The scale of development in the Cardamom scares us a little," added Lemaistre.

​អង្គការ​ UNPO ដាក់​របាយការណ៍​ទៅ ​UN ករណី​ខ្មែរ​កម្ពុជា​ក្រោម​

អង្គការ​ UNPO ដាក់​របាយការណ៍​ទៅ ​UN ករណី​ខ្មែរ​កម្ពុជា​ក្រោម​


ដោយ ស៊ុន ណារិន​ ថ្ងៃពុធ ទី26 មិថុនា ឆ្នាំ2013 ម៉ោង08:51


(រូបភាពដោយ វីអូឌី)​
អង្គការ​ផ្នែក​ក្រុម​ជនជាតិដើម ដែល​គ្មាន​តំណាង​នៅក្នុង​រដ្ឋាភិបាល ឬ​ហៅ​កាត់​ថា​អង្គការUNPO (Unrepresented Nations and People Organization) បានដាក់​របាយការណ៍​ទៅ​ឧត្តមស្នងការ​ជាន់ខ្ពស់​របស់​អង្គការ​សហប្រជាជាតិ ទទួលបន្ទុក​សិទ្ធិមនុស្ស ដោយ​បាន​ភ្ជាប់​នឹង​អនុសាសន៍​មួយចំនួន ដើម្បី​ជួយ​ដល់​ខ្មែរ​កម្ពុជា​ក្រោម​។

​​របាយការណ៍​របស់​អង្គការ បាន​​ដាក់​បញ្ចូល​​នូវ​​អនុសាសន៍​​មួយ​​ចំនួន ដែល​មាន​ដូចជា ទាមទារ​ឲ្យវៀតណាមនិង​កម្ពុជា ទទួលស្គាល់​ជា​ផ្លូវការ​ស្ថានភាព​ជនជាតិដើម​ភាគតិច​ ខ្មែរ​កម្ពុជា​ក្រោម វៀតណាម និង​កម្ពុជា បង្កើត​ជា​យន្តការ​សម្រាប់​ដោះស្រាយ​បញ្ហា​ដី ដែល​ទាមទារ​ដោយ​ជនជាតិភាគតិច​ទាំងនោះ កម្ពុជា និង​វៀតណាម ស៊ើបអង្កេតការ​បំពារបំពាន​អំពើហិង្សា ការធ្វើ​ទារុណកម្ម និង​ការកាត់ទោស​ផ្សេងៗ​។​

​អនុសាសន៍​នោះ ក៏​បាន​ស្នើ​ឲ្យ​ចុះ​កិច្ចព្រមព្រៀង និង​ផ្តល់​ការទទួលស្គាល់​លើ​កតិកាសញ្ញា​១៦៩ ​របស់​អង្គការ​ពលកម្ម​អន្តរជាតិ ស្តី​ពី​ជនជាតិដើម​ភាគតិចក្នុង​ប្រទេស​ឯករាជ្យ ក្នុង​គោលបំណង​ឲ្យមាន​ការគោរព​ប្រពៃណី ​ជន​ជាតិ​ដើម​ភាគតិច​។​

​កាលពី​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​២៥​ ខែមិថុនា ព្រះសង្ឃ​ខ្មែរ​កម្ពុជា​ក្រោម ប្រមាណ​៥០​អង្គ បាន​ដង្ហែ​ក្បួន​បាតុកម្ម ដាក់​ញត្តិ​ទៅកាន់​ស្ថានទូត​វៀតណាម ប្រចាំ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា សុំឲ្យ​អន្តរាគមន៍​ទៅ​កាន់​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​វៀតណាម ដោះលែង​ព្រះសង្ឃពីរ​អង្គ និង​បញ្ឈប់​ការ​ធ្វើទុក្ខបុកម្នេញ​លើ​ខ្មែរក្រោម​។​

​ប្រធានស្តីទី​សមាគម​ព្រះសង្ឃ​ខ្មែរ​កម្ពុជា​ក្រោម ព្រះ​តេជគុណ សៀង សុវណ្ណារ៉ា មាន​ថេរ​ដីកា​ថា បាតុកម្ម​នេះ ធ្វើឡើង​ក្នុង​គោលបំណង​ជំរុញ​ឲ្យ​អាជ្ញាធរ​វៀតណាម ដោះ​លែង​ជា​បន្ទាន់ នូវ​ព្រះសង្ឃ​ចំនួនពីរ​អង្គ គឺ​ព្រះ​តេជ​គុណ លីវ នី និង​ព្រះ​តេជ​គុណ ថាច់ ធឿន ដែល​បាន​បាត់​ខ្លួន បន្ទាប់​ពី​ព្រះ​តេជគុណ​មួយអង្គ ព្រះនាម លី ចិន្តា​ ត្រូវបាន​អាជ្ញាធរ​វៀតណាម ចាប់​ផ្សឹក និង​ធ្វើ​ទារុណកម្ម​វាយដំ ចាក់​ថ្នាំ រហូតដល់​បាត់បង់​ស្មារតី និង​បែកពពុះមាត់​ជាប្រចាំ​។​

កាលពី​ខែ​មិថុនា ឆ្នាំ​១៩៤៩ រដ្ឋការ​បារាំង​សេស បាន​កាត់​ទឹកដី​ខ្មែរ​កម្ពុជា​ក្រោម ឬ​ហៅ​ថា ទឹកដី​កូសាំងស៊ីន ទំហំ​៦៨៩៥០​គីឡូម៉ែត្រ​ក្រឡា ស្មើនឹង​២១​ខេត្ត ឲ្យទៅ​ប្រទេស​វៀតណាម​គ្រប់គ្រ​ង​រហូត​មកដល់​សព្វថ្ងៃនេះ​៕

The Passing of Sihanouk: Monarchic Manipulation and the Search for Autonomy in the Kingdom of Cambodia

The Passing of Sihanouk: Monarchic Manipulation and the Search for Autonomy in the Kingdom of Cambodia
Geoff Gunn
Summary
The survival of the monarchy in Cambodia is little short of remarkable in the light of that country's modern history. As this article develops, French manipulation of the monarchy and attempts to buttress religion and culture alongside the rise of nationalist youth and Buddhist radicalism was an important precursor to postwar events. No less momentous for modern Cambodian history was the Vichy French installation of Norodom Sihanouk as king and the elevation under Japan of the putative republican Son Ngoc Thanh. Facing down an armed Issarak-Viet Minh challenge also joined by a dissident prince, it is no less significant that the young King Sihanouk successfully trumped French ambitions by mounting his own “royal crusade” for independence even ahead of the Geneva Settlement of 1954. - See more at:
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ថ្មីៗ ៖​ក្រសួង​ព័ត៌មាន​ដក​បម្រាម​របស់ខ្លួន​វិញ(អត្ថបទចុះ​ផ្សាយ​នៅ​ថ្ងៃ 29-06-2013, 10:22 pm) | ដោយ បញ្ញវន្ត


(អត្ថបទចុះ​ផ្សាយ​នៅ​ថ្ងៃ  29-06-2013, 10:22 pm) |  ដោយ បញ្ញវន្ត




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នៅក្នុង​សេចក្តីសម្រេច​មួយ​ដែល​ចេញផ្សាយ​នៅវេលា​ម៉ោង​ជិត ១០ យប់​ថ្ងៃទី២៩ មិថុនា​នេះ ក្រសួង​ព័ត៌មាន​បានសម្រេច​ថា នឹង​អនុញ្ញាត​ឲ្យ​ស្ថានីយ​វិទ្យុ FM អាច​ផ្សាយ​បន្ត​កម្មវិធី​របស់​វិទ្យុ​បរទេស​ជា​ភាសា​ខ្មែរ​ឡើងវិញ​ជាធម្មតា​ហើយ​ចាប់ពីពេលនេះ​តទៅ។ សេចក្តីជូនដំណឹង​ដ៏​ខ្លី​របស់​ក្រសួង​ព័ត៌មាន​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹងថា ដោយយោង​តាម​សំណូមពរ​ដែល​ចង់​ឲ្យ​មានការ​ចាក់ផ្សាយ​ឡើងវិញ​នូវ​កម្មវិធី​របស់​វិទ្យុ​បរទេស​ជា​ភាសា​ខ្មែរ ក្រសួង​បានអនុញ្ញាត​ឲ្យ​មានការ​ផ្សាយ​ឡើងវិញ​ជាធម្មតា​ចាប់ពីពេលនេះ​តទៅ។ 

កាលពី​ថ្ងៃទី ២៥ មិថុនា លោក អ៊ុក ប្រាថ្នា រដ្ឋលេខាធិការ​ក្រសួង​ព័ត៌មាន​បាន​ចុះហត្ថលេខា​លើ​សេចក្តីណែនាំ​មួយ​ដោយ​តម្រូវ​ឲ្យ​ស្ថានីយ​វិទ្យុ FM ទាំងអស់​បញ្ឈប់​ការផ្សាយ​បន្ត​ពី​វិទ្យុ បរទេស​ភាសា​ខ្មែរ​ចាប់ពី​ថ្ងៃ​យុទ្ធនាការ​ឃោសនាបោះឆ្នោត​រហូតដល់​បោះឆ្នោត​រួច​ដែលមាន​រយៈពេល ៣១ថ្ងៃ។ ប៉ុន្តែ ស្រាប់តែ​ថ្ងៃនេះ ក្រសួង​បានសម្រេច​លុបចោល​បម្រាម​នេះ​ទៅវិញ បន្ទាប់ពី​មានប្រតិកម្ម​មិន​សប្បាយចិត្ត​ជាច្រើន។ វិទ្យុ​​បរទេស​ជា​ភាសា​​ខ្មែរ​ដែល​ទទួល​រង​ផល​ប៉ះពាល់​មាន​​វិទ្យុ វិទ្យុ អាស៊ីសេរី វិទ្យុសំឡេង​សហ​រដ្ឋអាមេរិក VOA បារាំងអន្តរជាតិ RFI និងវិទ្យុ ABC អូស្ត្រាលី។

ប៉ុន្តែ ក្រសួង​ព័ត៌មាន​បាន​បញ្ជាក់ថា ស្ថានីយ​វិទ្យុ​ទាំងអស់​ត្រូវ​យកចិត្តទុកដាក់​គោរព​តាម​សេចក្តីណែនាំ​របស់​ក្រសួង​ចុះ​ថ្ងៃទី២១ មិថុនា​ដែល​ចុះហត្ថលេខា​ដោយ​លោក ខៀវ កាញារីទ្ធ រដ្ឋមន្ត្រីក្រសួង​ព័ត៌មាន។ សេចក្តីណែនាំ​នេះ​តម្រូវ​ឲ្យ​ស្ថានីយ​វិទ្យុ FM ទាំងអស់​បញ្ឈប់​ការផ្សាយ​បន្ត​ពី​វិទ្យុ​បរទេស​អំពី​ការស្ទង់មតិ លទ្ធផល​នៃ​ការស្ទង់មតិ​ដែល​ទាក់ទង​នឹង​ដំណើរការ​បោះឆ្នោត​ក្នុង​រយៈពេល ៥ថ្ងៃមុន​ការបោះឆ្នោត និង​ថ្ងៃ​បោះឆ្នោត ព្រមទាំង​បញ្ឈប់​ការផ្សាយ​សកម្មភាព​ឃោសនា​អ្វី​ទាំងអស់​ក្នុងអំឡុងពេល២៤ម៉ោង​មុន​ថ្ងៃ​បោះឆ្នោត និង​ក្នុង​ថ្ងៃ​បោះឆ្នោត៕

US criticises Cambodia radio curbs during election

US criticises Cambodia radio curbs during election


Saturday, 29 June, 2013 Associated Press in Washington

The US strongly criticised Cambodia on Friday for banning radio stations from carrying foreign-produced programming in the local Khmer language during the campaign for next month’s elections.
 
State Department spokesman Patrick Ventrell said on Friday that’s a serious infringement of press freedom and such restrictions call into question whether the July 28 vote will be free and fair.

The election is almost certain to see Prime Minister Hun Sen, Asia’s longest-serving leader, extend his 28 years in power. His government is already accused of harassing political opponents. The Obama administration has said the exclusion of exiled opposition leader Sam Rainsy threatens the vote’s legitimacy.

The directive, dated Tuesday and signed by acting Information Minister Ouk Pratna, orders all FM stations to stop rebroadcasting radio programs from foreign stations through the month long campaign period that began Thursday, until election day. It threatens legal action if they fail to comply.

“This directive is a serious infringement of freedom of the press and freedom of expression and starkly contradicts the spirit of a healthy democratic process,” Ventrell told reporters at the State Department. He urged the Cambodian government to reconsider.

Radio Free Asia said its Khmer service has been dropped by 10 stations. It called the directive “the most sweeping and stunning frontal assault on media freedom in Cambodia in recent memory.”

Voice of America also condemned it, saying it deprives the Cambodian audiences of critical news and information on the election.

“These types of balanced and informative broadcasts are needed more than ever during the elections and we condemn any effort to silence the media,” VOA said in a statement.

Both of the Washington-based networks are US government funded. They said they would continue broadcasts by shortwave radio, satellite and on the Internet.

Radio Australia, which also broadcasts in Khmer, would be affected too, Radio Free Asia reported. But foreign broadcasts from Voice of Vietnam and China Radio International and French public radio station RFI won’t be as they operate their own stations in Cambodia, the report said.

The iron grip on government held by Hun Sen’s party already gives him major advantages in the election, including influence over state-run and other mainstream media, the loyalty of the civil service and the power to dispense patronage.

In the last election, in 2008, the party won 90 of the 123 seats in the National Assembly. Two weeks ago, 28 opposition lawmakers were expelled from parliament on a technicality.

Cambodia bans foreign radio programmes in run-up to election
Source: Reuters - Sat, 29 Jun 2013 04:33 AM

PHNOM PENH, June 29 (Reuters) - Cambodia has banned local radio stations from broadcasting content from foreign media in the run-up to a general election next month and also told them to stop carrying reports on foreigners playing any role in the campaign.

Prime Minister Hun Sen, one of the world's longest-serving leaders, has total control of local television and most radio stations and his Cambodian People's Party (CPP) is expected to win the July 28 election.

Radio Free Asia (RFA), one of two U.S. funded stations which offer programmes in Khmer through local radio and is free from government influence, said the media censorship would hinder democractic elections.

In a statement late on Friday, the Ministry of Information said all radio stations must be neutral in their coverage before the election and not carry reports on foreigners playing any role in the election. It was not clear if the directive was aimed at any individuals or monitoring groups.

The statement said stations must also suspend broadcasting Khmer-language programmes by foreign media.

Radio Free Asia spokesman John A. Estrella called the ban "the most sweeping and stunning frontal assault on media freedom in Cambodia in recent memory" and "a blatant strategy to silence the types of disparate and varied voices that characterise an open and free society".
"Unfettered access to diverse, accurate, election information provides the foundation for fair and free elections, and Prime Minister Hun Sen's decision represents a major regression in the march towards democracy and freedom in Cambodia," he said in a statement.

Two local stations, Women's Media Center FM 102 and Beehive FM 105, stopped re-broadcasting RFA and VOA reports on Friday.

Last year, the Cambodian government threatened legal action against RFA and VOA, accusing them of favouring opposition parties and promoting U.S. foreign policy.
Earlier this month a panel dominated by the CPP expelled 29 members of parliament because three parties had merged to form a new party to contest the election. It ruled that made them ineligible to continue to sit for the old parties.

The new formation, the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), will be the main challenger to the CPP.
It has already accused the National Election Committee of bias, listing irregularities including names missing from electoral rolls, the presence of "ghost names" and the disruption of CNRP public events. It has threatened to pull out of the election if things get worse.

(Reporting by Prak Chan Thul; Editing by Alan Raybould and Michael Perry)

The Lost Kingdom of Champa



Le royaume disparu du Champa
LE MONDE | 28.12.05

Il faut sortir de Phan Rang, prendre la route de Dalat, suivre une foule de plus en plus dense jusqu'à la colline où domine le temple de Po Kloong Garai. En ce jour de Katê, premier du septième mois lunaire, ils sont des milliers à se diriger vers cette merveille architecturale du XIVe siècle en briques rouges. "La fête du Katê est la plus importante du calendrier cham, tonne le Po Sa, dignitaire du temple, dans la cacophonie ambiante.

Aujourd'hui, les génies vont descendre pour prendre les offrandes." Nous sommes au sud-est du Vietnam. Cette fête traditionnelle commémore le Champa, un ancien royaume qui résonne toujours dans l'esprit des Cham, peuple d'origine austronésienne (famille ethnolinguistique du monde malais) qui ne compte plus aujourd'hui qu'à peine 60 000 représentants dans la région. Il faut se frayer un chemin entre les étals de sodas et de beignets, puis entre les cactus qui jalonnent le chemin jaune et aride. Enfin, monter le dernier escalier de fer pour accéder à l'esplanade du sanctuaire en luttant contre le va-et-vient de la foule : badauds, femmes surmontées de plateaux d'offrandes, danseuses à l'éventail et touristes vietnamiens visitant les lieux dans un climat de kermesse. Les basaih, dignitaires religieux, paradent en sarong blanc et turban immaculé à franges rouges, alors que vont être invoqués les rois et les reines divinisés du Champa. Joyau des royaumes indianisés d'Asie du Sud-Est, rival de celui d'Angkor au XIIe siècle, le Champa a occupé le sud du Vietnam actuel durant quinze siècles : du VIe au XIXe. Il a donné une civilisation raffinée, dominée par l'hindouisme. En témoignent les chefs-d'œuvre exposés jusqu'au 9 janvier au Musée Guimet, à Paris, exposition intitulée Trésors d'art du Vietnam : la sculpture du Champa. Mais de cette prestigieuse civilisation ne restent aujourd'hui qu'une vingtaine de temples le long de la côte méridionale du Vietnam, ainsi que 36 villages cham entre les villes de Phan Rang, Phan Ri et Phan Thiet (provinces du Ninh Thuân et du Binh Thuân). Cette côte d'à peine 200 km de long est le dernier bastion des Cham encore attachés à la tradition, qui culmine avec la fête du Katê.

Après une marche de 4 kilomètres depuis le village de Phuoc Dong, un cortège d'une centaine de personnes arrive sur l'esplanade. Elles accompagnent un petit palanquin de tissu rouge lamé d'or contenant les costumes sacrés du dieu Po Kloong Garai, roi mythique du Champa, transférés ce jour-là au temple au son des tambours et clarinettes. "Aujourd'hui, Po Kloong Garai descend en costume d'apparat pour participer à la fête", rappelle le camenei, dignitaire religieux qui officie pour le Katê. Puis il se livre à huis clos dans l'exiguïté du temple à l'ablution du linga-yoni.

Symbole de l'héritage indien qui a influencé la religion des rois cham, le linga-yoni est une manifestation du dieu Shiva. Le linga dressé symbolise un phallus, enchâssé dans le yoni représentant la vulve se terminant par un canal d'écoulement. Loin du culte uniquement phallique qu'on a souvent décrit en Occident en omettant sa part féminine, ces deux éléments représentent les forces sexuelles qui s'interpénètrent, complémentaires et inséparables, Shiva et Bhagavati, couple mythique qui a structuré la société cham. Ici, cependant, le linga est affublé d'un visage, celui du roi Po Kloong Garai, dans un besoin de représenter la divinité sous des traits anthropomorphiques et de remplacer Shiva par un dieu autochtone du Champa.

Depuis le matin déjà, les femmes ont dressé des nattes tout autour du temple et confectionnent leurs plateaux, dont elles vont faire offrande aux divinités. L'une d'elles explique : "Nous avons plus d'une vingtaine de plateaux différents. Le talai, par exemple, comprend la tête et les pattes du poulet, trois bols de soupe et un bol de riz. Le patuy ne propose que la viande et les abats, mais quatre bols de soupe et deux bols de riz." Une petite bougie de couleur brune et de forme irrégulière confectionnée à la main est toujours collée sur le côté extérieur des bols de riz. "La bougie, c'est la lumière qui permet de distinguer le bien du mal, le monde réel du monde surnaturel peuplé de démons susceptibles de venir dévorer nos offrandes".

Chaque plateau correspond à un voeu. A l'intérieur du temple, il est pris en charge par la prêtresse muk pajau pour être offert à la divinité. Puis l'ong kadhar, le prêtre musicien, à l'aide de son rabap, vielle à deux cordes, entonne un hymne au yang (génie) à qui l'offrande est destinée. La liste des yang est longue : rois, reines, yang de la terre, des eaux, des vagues, du tonnerre, de l'agriculture, militaires divinisés. Une divinité les surpasse tous : Po Nagar, la reine mère du royaume. Selon le po sa du temple, "Po Nagar est la mère du Champa. Elle a tout appris aux Cham, tous les Cham sont ses enfants". Il raconte sa légende : "Po Nagar avait épousé un roi de Chine. Mais, voulant protéger les Cham, elle revint au Champa par la mer en débarquant à Nha Trang, où se dresse encore son temple. Elle nous apporta la riziculture, le bois parfumé ainsi que le tissage. Elle épousa ensuite 37 hommes de différentes ethnies qui composaient l'ancien Champa pour sceller des alliances politiques."

Pourtant, cette légende qui lui donne des qualités diplomatiques n'a pas sauvé le Champa des attaques du Nord. A partir du Xe siècle, le Dai Viet (futur Vietnam), libéré du joug chinois, commence son expansion territoriale vers le sud. Huit siècles de guerres incessantes réduiront le royaume champa comme peau de chagrin. Les cinq principautés fédérées qui composaient le royaume (Indrapura, Amaravati, Vijaya, Kauthara et Panduranga) sont progressivement annexées. La dernière tombe en 1832. Ces conflits ont suscité d'importantes vagues d'exode, notamment vers le Cambodge. La plus importante dès 1471, après la chute de la capitale cham, Vijaya.

Au fur et à mesure de la diminution du territoire, les temples sont abandonnés, comme ceux de My Son, la "cité sacrée" des Cham, près de Danang. "Après le départ des Cham, les génies ont déménagé, car plus personne ne leur donnait à manger", explique Nguyen Van Ty, un intellectuel cham francophone. Le territoire des génies protecteurs du Champa se situe aujourd'hui dans le dernier bastion du Panduranga, où les Cham n'ont jamais été assimilés à la société vietnamienne. Dans cette enclave préservée, entre les villes de Phan Rang et Phan Thiet, les Cham continuent à parler leur langue et à pratiquer leurs rites.

Mais ils se divisent entre brahmanistes et musulmans. Les premiers, les balamon, pratiquent un culte dont ils ont oublié les origines, car les dieux de l'Inde se sont mélangés à l'animisme local.

Les seconds, les bani, rendent un culte à Allah et Mohamad, mais respectent assez peu les cinq piliers de l'islam. Cette bipolarisation religieuse influence profondément la structure sociale des Cham. Villages brahmanistes et musulmans sont distinctement séparés.

Suivant les interdits alimentaires de leurs modèles religieux respectifs, les habitants des premiers s'abstiennent de manger du boeuf — la "vache sacrée" —, les autres excluent le porc. Mais ils peuvent transgresser l'interdit en dehors de leur village, lors d'un repas avec un membre d'une autre communauté par exemple. Les basaih, les dignitaires religieux brahmanistes, portent en chignon des cheveux qu'ils ne coupent jamais, tandis que les acar, leurs "homologues" musulmans, se rasent entièrement le crâne.

Selon le basaih Ong Bai Do : "Les balamon suivent le calendrier solaire et sont incinérés après la mort pour monter au ciel chez le père. Les bani suivent le calendrier lunaire et sont enterrés, ils vont sous terre chez la mère." C'est pourquoi les balamon sont associés à l'élément masculin, tandis que les bani sont attachés au principe féminin. "Nous nous complétons mutuellement et de façon parallèle", ajoute l'acar Tu Cong Dat. Des représentants de chacune des deux religions assistent aux cérémonies de l'autre communauté. Les bani sont nombreux à venir au Katê, la grande fête des balamon, ce qui traduit aussi un esprit de tolérance et de synthèse que l'on rencontre rarement dans les "grandes religions".

Jadis réservé aux fidèles adressant des offrandes à un génie particulier, le Katê est devenu une

fête à forte teneur identitaire. Pourtant, la préservation d'une culture originale pourrait évoluer vers une folklorisation des rites, avec la scénarisation de danses rajoutées au rituel, ainsi que l'utilisation de haut-parleurs pour relayer les cérémonies à l'intérieur du temple. Un danger se profile sous cette vitalité apparente. On le nomme "modernité".

Agnès De Féo
Article paru dans l'édition du 29.12.05

Jayavarman II, a man who Built "Khmer Empire"


Jayavarman II, a man who Built "Khmer Empire"



...According to the dates given by George Coedès in many of his publications, it seemed clear that the kingdom of Cambodia was ruled in the 9th century AD by a succession of kings in the following order: Jayvarman II (802-850), Jayavarman III (850-877), Indravarman I (877-889) and Yasovarman I (889-900 or later).

Some of these dates were questioned later by Claude Jacques according to whom the accession of Jayavarman III took place in 834 AD for reasons which will be discussed below, and ended also earlier than 877. It is of some importance that Yasovarman I was mentioned as ruler for the Saka year 829 (907/08 AD) in the inscription of Phnom Bakhen of King Jayavarman V (K. 558), dated Saka 890 (968/69 AD).

Moreover, for Coedès Jayavarman II was one of the most important kings who, coming from a country called Javâ, overthrew its suzerainty and changed his capital very often in a series of battles. After his death he was endowed with the posthumous name Paramesvara, which seems to be a kind of consecration. Until today this chronology and history is the base of nearly all modern historiographies of Cambodia.

First of all, as we know, the elaborate history of Jayavarman II, including the date of his accession, was not derived from contemporary sources, but from inscriptions of the 11th century AD. The story which connects him with «Javâ» can be found only in inscriptions of Suryavarman’s successor Udayadityavarman II: the story of the «adventures» of Jayavarman II and the recurring change of his capital is known only from one source, the Sdok Kak Thom inscription (K. 235) dated 8th February 1053 AD.

However, Jayavarman II was mentioned in earlier inscriptions, albeit only as the one who settled at mount Mahendra identified with the Phnom Kulen. In earlier inscriptions Jayavarman II is no extraordinary king who as a hero liberated his country from foreign sovereignty. \

He is only one king in a line of other kings, even in the Prè Rup inscription of king Rajendravarman II dated 961/62 AD in which Jayavarman II is named casually in connection with the king Puskaraksa, who was the maternal uncle of the mother of Jayavarman’s mother (stanza IX), which is in accordance with the Lolei inscription (K. 323). However, the moving of capitals, is also of some importance as it was Jayavarman II who founded the nucleus of the later capital Angkor. ...


Related topic, click on the links below to read the articles.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/301937/Jayavarman-II

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Khmer_Empire


Saturday, June 29, 2013

Since June 5, Cambodia is an Unconstitutional Regime. Legally, all Powers are in Khmer Nation's Hands. Election Campaigns Go off from June 27 to July 26,2013! How to keep these Powers? Listen to Radio Khmer Lotus Revolution on June 29,2013,via Internet




Dear all,
Election Campaigns Go off from June 27 to July 26,2013!
Since June 5, Cambodia Has no National Assembly:
It is an Unconstitutional Regime!
All Powers have been legally and automatically
Handed in Cambodian People’s Hands!
The Situation Is very Favorable:
1/ Khmer Nation Should Trigger Generalized Civil Disobedience
to keep handling these Powers:
First Boycott Elections !
Cambodia Should Reject Vietnamese Colonization
And Overthrow Hun Sen‘s Dictaturship!
And  then Install Independent Institutions For Free Elections:
By the Formation of Transitional National Council or Temporary Government!
​​2/ If  Khmer Nation Shouldn’t Go  to the July 28,2013  Elections:
 Dictatorship, Vietnamese Colonization and  Territorial Annexation will End!
War or Complicity with Dictatorship and Treason will End!
Cambodia Wouldn’t be Colonized nor lose its territories!
Its People would be Free and Democratic!
July 28,2013 will be  The Election-treason to Elect Fraudulently Legislators, Ministers…,  So that  bothCPP and  CNRP can legally continue their Treason to  their Country…! Why Khmer People  Go to the Polls(under Dictatorship, without NEC’s Restructuration &without Electoral List Verification…)? Let’s Boycott andOrganize Non-Violent Demonstrations andGeneralized Civil Disobedience…!  Cambodia and its People will Win : their Demands (Independence, Liberty and Democracy)​​ are Legitimate…
Only Generalized Civil Disobedience Could Save Cambodia!
Cambodian People !
Wake Up !
Listen to Radio Khmer Lotus Revolutionon June 29,2013,via Internet.
To Follow Cambodia’s Situation:

Best regards
Thanks


Chers Tous,
Les Campagnes électorales se déroulent du 27 Juin au 27 Juillet 2013!
Depuis le 5 juin, le Cambodge n’a plus d’Assemblée Nationale :
C’est un Régime Inconstitutionnel!
Légalement et automatiquement, tous les Pouvoirs
se retrouvent  dans les Mains de la Nation Khmère!
La Situation est très Favorable :
1/Elle devra  Déclencher la Désobéissance Civile Généralisée
pour Garder ces Pouvoirs:
D’abord  Boycotter ces Elections :
Le Cambodge Devra Refuser la Colonisation Vietnamienne
et rejeter la Dictature de Hun Sen!
Ensuite Créer des Institutions Indépendantes avant d’Organiser des Elections libres :
Par la Formation du Conseil National de Transition ou du Gouvernement Provisoire!
​​2/ Si la Nation Khmère n’Ira pas Voter aux Elections du 28 Juillet 2013 :
La Dictature, la Colonisation Vietnamienne dont l’Annexion territoriale s’arrêteront!
La  Guerre ou la Complicité avec la Dictature et la Trahison s’arrêteront!
Le Cambodge ne sera plus Colonisé et ne perdra plus ses territoires!
Son Peuple ne sera plus Opprimé et aura la Démocratie!
Pour éviter d’Elire des Dirigeants Khmers Traîtres à leur  Patrie, les Cambodgiens ne devront pas aller voter aux Elections-Trahisons Frauduleuses du 28 Juillet 2013, pour ne plus donner de pouvoir ni au PPC ni au CNRP …! Pourquoi  aller voter (sous la Dictature, sans Restructuration préalable du CNE & sans Vérification des listes électorales…) ? Par Boycott , par Manifestations,  et par Désobéissance Civile généralisée Non Violents: le Cambodge et son peuple  gagneront car leurs Revendications (Indépendance, Liberté & Démocratie…) sont légitimes… !
Seule la Désobéissance Civile Généralisée pourra Sauver le Cambodge!
Peuple Cambodgien!
Levez-Vous !
Ecoutez  La  Radio Khmer  Lotus Revolutiondu 29 Juin  2013,  via Internet.
Pour  suivre  la situation du Cambodge :
Cordialement
Merci

បងប្អូនជនរួមជាតិជាទីគោរព!
សម័យឃោសនាបោះឆ្នោតកំពុងប្រព្រឹត្តទៅ
ពីថ្ងៃ២៧មិថុនាដល់ថ្ងៃ២៦ក្កដា២០១៣!
ចាប់ពីថ្ងៃ៥មិថុនាមកប្រទេសខ្មែរគ្មានរដ្ឋសភាទេ!
គឺជារបបអធម្មនុញ្ញ!
អំណាចរដ្ឋត្រូវធ្លាក់ជាស្វ័យប្រវត្តិ
មកក្នុងដៃប្រជាជាតិខ្មែរដោយស្របច្បាប់!
នេះជាឳកាសអំណោយផលដ៏ល្អ!
១/ ពលរដ្ឋខ្មែរត្រូវឈប់គោរពអំណាចរដ្ឋបែបស៊ីវិល
ដើម្បីរក្សាទុកអំណាចរដ្ឋនេះក្នុងដៃរបស់ខ្លួន៖
 ដំបូងគឺកុំទៅបោះឆ្នោត​!
គឺខ្មែរត្រូវតែសំរេចចិត្តឈប់រស់ក្រោមអាណានិគមយួន
និង ក្រោមអំណាចផ្តាច់ការហ៊ុនសែន!
មុននឹងរៀបចំការបោះឆ្នោតត្រូវរៀបចំស្ថាប័នឯករាជ្យសិន
​​    តាមការបង្កើតក្រុមប្រឹក្សាជាតិអន្តរកាលឫ​រដ្ឋាភិបាលបណ្តោះអាសន្ន​!
២/ បើខ្មែរ មិនទៅបោះឆ្នោតថ្ងៃ២៨កក្កដាឆ្នាំ២០១៣ 
អំពើផ្តាច់ការ កញ្ជះយួន កាត់ទឹកដីឲ្យយួន មិនអាចបន្តបានទៀតទេ!
​​សង្គ្រាម ឫអំពើស៊ុំគ្រលុំ ជាមួយពួកផ្តាច់ការ ក្បត់ជាតិ មិនអាចបន្តបានទៀតទេ! ​​
ប្រទេសខ្មែរលែងរស់ក្រោមអាណានិគមយួន​ ឈប់ បាត់ទឹកដី!
ប្រទេសខ្មែរនឹង​ មានសេរីភាព​ ស្គាល់លទ្ធិប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ !
ខ្មែរត្រូវឈប់ផ្តល់អំណាចឲ្យបក្សប្រជាជននិងបក្សប្រឆាំងដើម្បីកុំឲ្យគេអាចបន្ត
អំពើក្បត់ជាតិ និង ប្រើអំណាចផ្តាច់ការជិះជាន់ប្រជាជាតិខ្មែរទៅទៀត។
ហេតុអ្វីបានជាប្រជាជាតិខ្មែរនាំគ្នាទៅ បោះឆ្នោត​ដែលគេបន្លិមបន្លំ (ក្រោមរបបផ្តាច់ការ ដោយគ្មានការប្តូរសមាសភាពនៃគជប &គ្មាន ការសើរើពិនិត្យបញ្ជីរឈ្មោះអ្នកបោះឆ្នោតឡើងវិញ…?)  មានតែការធ្វើ ពហិការ និង ការឈប់ស្តាប់បង្គាប់រដ្ឋអំណាចជាទួទៅ យ៉ាងគគ្រឹកគគ្រេងបែបស៊ីវិល​ ទាំងអស់គ្នា  ជានិច្ចនិរន្ត ជាមួយប្រជាពលរដ្ឋខ្មែរ  នេះទេ ដែលអាចនាំឲ្យ ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា និង ប្រជាជាតិខ្មែរ ទទួលជ័យជំនះ បាន​ (ព្រោះ ឯករាជ្យ សេរីភាព និងលទ្ធិប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ… ជាគោលបំណងត្រឹមត្រូវស្របច្បាប់)!​ ។​  
ស្ថានភាពបច្ចុប្បន្នមានអំណោយផល ល្អណាស់សំរាប់ប្រជាជាតិខ្មែរ!
សូមប្រជាជាតិខ្មែរក្រោកឡើង!
Wake Up ! Levez-Vous!
សូមស្តាប់ វិទ្យុបដិវត្តន៍ ផ្កា ឈូក ថ្ងែទី ២៩/​ មិថុនា/ ២០១៣។ 
និងដើម្បីតាមដានស្ថានការណ៍ស្រុកខ្មែរ:
សូមអរគុណ!